This fraud method falls in to the "Load-time click" frauds category, where a "Click" on an invisible advertisement is generated, without
the visitor's knowledge and intervention, and without the visitor of this page having clicked on any advertisement.
It uses "Background Image" setting within the attached CSS file, where the source of the image is set pointing to the Click-tracking URL. The broweser request will also recieve a cookie from the tracking server, The browser stores the cookie on client computer. Subsequently, when the visitor makes a purchase at the advertisers e-commerce site, the cookie will identify the rogue affiliate as the source of the traffic, and the rogue affiliate will recieve the commission.
It is usefule for the tracking software to examine the "Referer" field in the header, to ascertain the source of the click.
To examine, behind-the-scene action, you can open your browser using "developer tools" option of the browser, which usually can be navigated through menu, or activatd by pressing "F12" key. Reload the page, and on the network tab you can see the list of server calls to connex.net.nz and to the e-commerce server. Here you can check the content of the cookie, your unique ID, Cookie-lifespan etc. To observe the "dumping" of a new cookie, either you can deleted the previous cookies belonging to this site, or open this page in an "incognito" or "private browsing" window.